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Ukrainian mosaic: five unique ethnic groups

The Lemko: Lemko ancestors were the ancient tribes of White Croats who lived on the slopes of the Carpathian Mountains. Today, Lemkos are scattered between Western Ukraine, Poland, and Slovakia.

The Boykos: Currently, the community inhabits the High Beskyd, the Gorgany Mountains, and most villages can be found in the Middle Carpathian Depression. In general, Boykos differ from area to area in dialect, dress, folk architecture, and customs.

The Hutsul: Hutsuls are called the Ukrainian mountaineers. Most Hutsuls live in Ivano-Frankivsk, Zakarpattia and Chernivtsi regions of Ukraine;  They are hospitable, but do not welcome strangers openly into their family.

The Bukovynians: Bukovyna was established as a province by the Austrian Empire. it is currently divided into two parts, the north belongs to Ukraine and the south to Romania.

The Podolians: Podillya is a region located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine. Podolians began settling here in the 4th–3rd century BC. Podillya is derived from Old Slavic “po”, meaning “by/next to/along”, and “dol” – “valley”.

Ukraine is a multi-ethnic, multi-language and multi-culture country. It is home to many nationalities; twenty-two percent of Ukraine’s population is composed of ethnic minorities. Russians are the largest among them, about 17 percent of Ukraine’s population, who historically lived in the southern and eastern part of the country. Other significantly represented nationalities include Romanians, Belorusians, Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Poles, Jews, Greeks and Armenians. Source: euromaidampress

Ukrainian mosaic: five unique ethnic groups

The Lemko: Lemko ancestors were the ancient tribes of White Croats who lived on the slopes of the Carpathian Mountains. Today, Lemkos are scattered between Western Ukraine, Poland, and Slovakia.

The Boykos: Currently, the community inhabits the High Beskyd, the Gorgany Mountains, and most villages can be found in the Middle Carpathian Depression. In general, Boykos differ from area to area in dialect, dress, folk architecture, and customs.

The Hutsul: Hutsuls are called the Ukrainian mountaineers. Most Hutsuls live in Ivano-Frankivsk, Zakarpattia and Chernivtsi regions of Ukraine;  They are hospitable, but do not welcome strangers openly into their family.

The Bukovynians: Bukovyna was established as a province by the Austrian Empire. it is currently divided into two parts, the north belongs to Ukraine and the south to Romania.

The Podolians: Podillya is a region located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine. Podolians began settling here in the 4th–3rd century BC. Podillya is derived from Old Slavic “po”, meaning “by/next to/along”, and “dol” – “valley”.

Ukraine is a multi-ethnic, multi-language and multi-culture country. It is home to many nationalities; twenty-two percent of Ukraine’s population is composed of ethnic minorities. Russians are the largest among them, about 17 percent of Ukraine’s population, who historically lived in the southern and eastern part of the country. Other significantly represented nationalities include Romanians, Belorusians, Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Poles, Jews, Greeks and Armenians. Source: euromaidampress

Teeth sharpening was done for various reasons among African tribes. For some, the ritual was done to initiate young boys and girls who had reached puberty into adulthood. For these people, it was done during the adulthood rites of passage mainly because at that age they would be able to endure the pain to show that they were indeed ready for adulthood this was mainly among tribes in Congo and the Central African Republic and Gabon.For other tribes, the teeth sharpening ritual was a general part of their custom and any person belonging to such a tribe was expected to have sharpened teeth at an expected age. In parts of Sudan, where indigenous tribes existed, the teeth sharpening ritual was also done for spiritual protection especially when one was seeking spiritual strength or chosen as a spiritual leader.  Other reasons for the teeth sharpening trend is for men to look like animals such as the crocodile as a sign of masculinity. This is a common belief among the Pare people in Tanzania. Several other tribes like the Makonde people performed the teeth sharpening ritual to make their people more beautiful. Among these people, more women had their teeth sharpened and were a symbol of beauty.The teeth sharpening ritual was not done by just anybody as it required great skill and patience to prevent injuring a person while the ritual happened. The sharpening was done by chosen men or women who were believed to be born with the skill gifted to them by the gods and they were able to train chosen people to help them.

Teeth sharpening was done for various reasons among African tribes. For some, the ritual was done to initiate young boys and girls who had reached puberty into adulthood. For these people, it was done during the adulthood rites of passage mainly because at that age they would be able to endure the pain to show that they were indeed ready for adulthood this was mainly among tribes in Congo and the Central African Republic and Gabon.For other tribes, the teeth sharpening ritual was a general part of their custom and any person belonging to such a tribe was expected to have sharpened teeth at an expected age. In parts of Sudan, where indigenous tribes existed, the teeth sharpening ritual was also done for spiritual protection especially when one was seeking spiritual strength or chosen as a spiritual leader.  Other reasons for the teeth sharpening trend is for men to look like animals such as the crocodile as a sign of masculinity. This is a common belief among the Pare people in Tanzania. Several other tribes like the Makonde people performed the teeth sharpening ritual to make their people more beautiful. Among these people, more women had their teeth sharpened and were a symbol of beauty.The teeth sharpening ritual was not done by just anybody as it required great skill and patience to prevent injuring a person while the ritual happened. The sharpening was done by chosen men or women who were believed to be born with the skill gifted to them by the gods and they were able to train chosen people to help them.

Before Aboriginal people populated the Australian continent some 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, the major cause of fires would have been lightning. Aboriginal people learnt to harness the naturally recurring fire caused by lightning and other sources to their advantage, which resulted in skilful burning of landscapes for many different purposes. Fire was used to: make access easier through thick and prickly vegetation, maintain a pattern of vegetation to encourage new growth and attract game for hunting and encourage the development of useful food plants, for cooking, warmth, signalliand spiritual reasons.Early European explorers and settlers commented on the Aboriginal people’s familiarity with fire, and the presence of fire in the landscape continually throughout the year. Most of the fires were relatively low intensity and did not burn large areas.This constant use of fire by Aboriginal people as they went about their daily lives most likely resulted in a fine grained mosaic of different vegetation and fuel ages across the landscape. As a result, large intense bushfires were uncommon
Fire is a significant part of Aboriginal culture and the knowledge of its use has been retained by many Aboriginal families as their culture and values are shared between generations.

Before Aboriginal people populated the Australian continent some 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, the major cause of fires would have been lightning. Aboriginal people learnt to harness the naturally recurring fire caused by lightning and other sources to their advantage, which resulted in skilful burning of landscapes for many different purposes. Fire was used to: make access easier through thick and prickly vegetation, maintain a pattern of vegetation to encourage new growth and attract game for hunting and encourage the development of useful food plants, for cooking, warmth, signalliand spiritual reasons.Early European explorers and settlers commented on the Aboriginal people’s familiarity with fire, and the presence of fire in the landscape continually throughout the year. Most of the fires were relatively low intensity and did not burn large areas.This constant use of fire by Aboriginal people as they went about their daily lives most likely resulted in a fine grained mosaic of different vegetation and fuel ages across the landscape. As a result, large intense bushfires were uncommon
Fire is a significant part of Aboriginal culture and the knowledge of its use has been retained by many Aboriginal families as their culture and values are shared between generations.

Memories of my trip to the Edge of the World, one of the most amazing landscapes in Saudi Arabia. Also known as Jebel Fihrayn, it is an unexpected and dramatic geological wonder in the rocky desert northwest of Riyadh, that has witnessed for millennia the passing of countless ancient tribes.

#wewilltravelagainsoon #saudiarabia #lifechangingexperiences

Memories of my trip to the Edge of the World, one of the most amazing landscapes in Saudi Arabia. Also known as Jebel Fihrayn, it is an unexpected and dramatic geological wonder in the rocky desert northwest of Riyadh, that has witnessed for millennia the passing of countless ancient tribes. 

#wewilltravelagainsoon #saudiarabia #lifechangingexperiences

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In the traditional Amazigh families, like the friendly one that hosted me in Tizgga -one of the highest villages in the Atlas Mountains in Morocco- women look after the house and make crafts such as ceramics and colorful wool carpets, while men take care of livestock. Their stone houses carved into the sides of the mountains take you back to the Middle Ages.
#amazigh #atlasmountains #morocco #nomadictribe #explorer

In the traditional Amazigh families, like the friendly one that hosted me in Tizgga -one of the highest villages in the Atlas Mountains in Morocco- women look after the house and make crafts such as ceramics and colorful wool carpets, while men take care of livestock. Their stone houses carved into the sides of the mountains take you back to the Middle Ages. 
#amazigh #atlasmountains #morocco #nomadictribe #explorer

The Tuareg people are a large Berber ethnic confederation. They principally inhabit the Sahara in a vast area stretching from far southwestern Libya to southern Algeria, Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso. Traditionally nomadic pastoralists, small groups of Tuareg are also found in northern Nigeria. For thousands of years, the Tuareg economy revolved around trans-Saharan trade. There are basically five trade routes that extend across the Sahara from the northern Mediterranean coast to the African cities on the southern edge of the desert. Tuareg merchants were responsible for bringing goods from these cities to the north. From there, they were distributed throughout the world. Because of the nature of transport and the limited space available in caravans, Tuareg usually traded in luxury items, which took up little space and on which a large profit could be made. Tuareg were also responsible for bringing enslaved people north from West Africa to be sold to Europeans and Middle Easterners. Many Tuareg settled into the communities with which they traded, serving as local merchants and representatives for their nomadic relations.

The Tuareg people are a large Berber ethnic confederation. They principally inhabit the Sahara in a vast area stretching from far southwestern Libya to southern Algeria, Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso. Traditionally nomadic pastoralists, small groups of Tuareg are also found in northern Nigeria. For thousands of years, the Tuareg economy revolved around trans-Saharan trade. There are basically five trade routes that extend across the Sahara from the northern Mediterranean coast to the African cities on the southern edge of the desert. Tuareg merchants were responsible for bringing goods from these cities to the north. From there, they were distributed throughout the world. Because of the nature of transport and the limited space available in caravans, Tuareg usually traded in luxury items, which took up little space and on which a large profit could be made. Tuareg were also responsible for bringing enslaved people north from West Africa to be sold to Europeans and Middle Easterners. Many Tuareg settled into the communities with which they traded, serving as local merchants and representatives for their nomadic relations.

Women of the Kayan People begin to wear neck coils from as young as age two. The length of the coil is gradually increased to as much as twenty turns. The weight of the coils will eventually place sufficient pressure on the clavicles to cause them to deform and create an impression of a longer neck. 

Women of the Kayan People begin to wear neck coils from as young as age two. The length of the coil is gradually increased to as much as twenty turns. The weight of the coils will eventually place sufficient pressure on the clavicles to cause them to deform and create an impression of a longer neck. 

Madagascar is a real heaven for nature lovers keen to go trekking! One first example: the Lokobe nature reserve is a protected area that shows the remains of the rainforest that previously covered the whole Island. The volcanic lakes are the perfect habitat for crocodiles, and the hills and mountains are the incredible backdrops of this unique place. Read more:

https://www.nomadictribe.com/discover/items/46

Madagascar is a real heaven for nature lovers keen to go trekking! One first example: the Lokobe nature reserve is a protected area that shows the remains of the rainforest that previously covered the whole Island. The volcanic lakes are the perfect habitat for crocodiles, and the hills and mountains are the incredible backdrops of this unique place. Read more:

https://www.nomadictribe.com/discover/items/46

Check this out!

When we talk about health and medicine, we are often referring to a general, westernized concept of the term.But what does it mean for indigenous peoples? What is their approach to medicine and healthcare? Here, we look at some of their traditional knowledge and discover the range of long-established practices still being used across Africa, America, Canada and Australia.... read the full article  https://www.nomadictribe.com/discover/items/25

When we talk about health and medicine, we are often referring to a general, westernized concept of the term.But what does it mean for indigenous peoples? What is their approach to medicine and healthcare? Here, we look at some of their traditional knowledge and discover the range of long-established practices still being used across Africa, America, Canada and Australia.... read the full article  https://www.nomadictribe.com/discover/items/25

When we talk about health and medicine, we are often referring to a general, westernized concept of the term.But what does it mean for indigenous peoples? What is their approach to medicine and healthcare? Here, we look at some of their traditional knowledge and discover the range of long-established practices still being used across Africa, America, Canada and Australia.... read the full article  https://www.nomadictribe.com/discover/items/25

When we talk about health and medicine, we are often referring to a general, westernized concept of the term.But what does it mean for indigenous peoples? What is their approach to medicine and healthcare? Here, we look at some of their traditional knowledge and discover the range of long-established practices still being used across Africa, America, Canada and Australia.... read the full article  https://www.nomadictribe.com/discover/items/25

The  Kalash people followed a simple life, mostly dependent on agriculture and cattle rearing. Buckwheat and other crops were grown in the river valleys. Surrounding orchards provided fruits of various kinds. Milk from the cattle was used to make ghee, butter and cheese. Wine was made from grapes. Food was cooked over wood-fired ovens. They followed a nature-oriented faith, which later some researchers equated with animistic form of worship while others found similarities with ancient Hindu concepts.The Kalash follow various social customs and rituals. One of them that has been much discussed is the custom of sending menstruating as well as pregnant women to the ‘bashaleni’, a dorm-style building far from the main village. Modern interpreters of culture often refer to it as a form of oppression. But according to Kalash people, it is the women who handle the bulk of everyday work; the time out in the bashaleni is to give the women rest from the daily chores.

The  Kalash people followed a simple life, mostly dependent on agriculture and cattle rearing. Buckwheat and other crops were grown in the river valleys. Surrounding orchards provided fruits of various kinds. Milk from the cattle was used to make ghee, butter and cheese. Wine was made from grapes. Food was cooked over wood-fired ovens. They followed a nature-oriented faith, which later some researchers equated with animistic form of worship while others found similarities with ancient Hindu concepts.The Kalash follow various social customs and rituals. One of them that has been much discussed is the custom of sending menstruating as well as pregnant women to the ‘bashaleni’, a dorm-style building far from the main village. Modern interpreters of culture often refer to it as a form of oppression. But according to Kalash people, it is the women who handle the bulk of everyday work; the time out in the bashaleni is to give the women rest from the daily chores.

During my trip with Nomadic Tribe to live with the Nenets in Siberia I discovered that the clothes made by the tribe protected me more from the cold - around minus 30 degrees C - than the toughest adventure clothing I had brought from home. In the photo wearing the Malitsa, which is a Nenet coat made of around 4 reindeer skins -the fur being closest to the skin on the inside and the blue fabric on the outside-. ​@The Nenet​ #siberia #adventure

During my trip with Nomadic Tribe to live with the Nenets in Siberia I discovered that the clothes made by the tribe protected me more from the cold - around minus 30 degrees C - than the toughest adventure clothing I had brought from home. In the photo wearing the Malitsa, which is a Nenet coat made of around 4 reindeer skins -the fur being closest to the skin on the inside and the blue fabric on the outside-. ​@The Nenet​ #siberia #adventure

The Philippines consist of numerous upland and lowland indigenous ethnolinguistic groups living in the country, with Austronesian making up the overwhelming majority, while full or partial Australo-Melanesians scattered throughout the archipelago. The highland Austroneians and Australo-Melanesians have co-existed with their lowland Austronesian kin and neighbor groups for thousands of years in the Philippine archipelago. The primary difference is that they were not absorbed by centuries of Spanish and United States colonization of the Philippines, and in the process have retained their customs and traditions. Culturally-indigenous peoples of northern Philippine highlands can be grouped into the Igorot (comprising many different groups) and singular Bugkalot groups, while the non-Muslim culturally-indigenous groups of mainland Mindanao are collectively called Lumad. Australo-Melanesian groups throughout the archipelago are termed Aeta, Ita, Ati, Dumagat, among others. Numerous culturally-indigenous groups also live outside these two indigenous corridors.[1]There are 134 ethnic groups in the Philippines, the majority of which are indigenous, though much of the overall Philippine population is constituted by only 8-10 lowland ethnic groups.

The Philippines consist of numerous upland and lowland indigenous ethnolinguistic groups living in the country, with Austronesian making up the overwhelming majority, while full or partial Australo-Melanesians scattered throughout the archipelago. The highland Austroneians and Australo-Melanesians have co-existed with their lowland Austronesian kin and neighbor groups for thousands of years in the Philippine archipelago. The primary difference is that they were not absorbed by centuries of Spanish and United States colonization of the Philippines, and in the process have retained their customs and traditions. Culturally-indigenous peoples of northern Philippine highlands can be grouped into the Igorot (comprising many different groups) and singular Bugkalot groups, while the non-Muslim culturally-indigenous groups of mainland Mindanao are collectively called Lumad. Australo-Melanesian groups throughout the archipelago are termed Aeta, Ita, Ati, Dumagat, among others. Numerous culturally-indigenous groups also live outside these two indigenous corridors.[1]There are 134 ethnic groups in the Philippines, the majority of which are indigenous, though much of the overall Philippine population is constituted by only 8-10 lowland ethnic groups.

Chin tribe is best known of the intricate ink details covering their entire face. This tradition started for generations ago when several tribes in the Chin province of Myanmar began to tattoo the face of each and every single young woman. The Chin parents, in an attempt to protect their daughters, started tattooing their young child’s face.

Over the years, what was originally intended to make the women undesirable began to have another opposite effect. The full facial tattoos became signs of beauty for every Chin women of the old generation. The tattooing became a thoroughgoing tradition, not only deeply entrenched in the local culture but also appeared to be something that most of Chin women are proud of and Each area of Chin state has a distinct tattoo pattern so it is usually possible to determine where a woman comes from by the look of the tattoo on her face. This kind of ancillary information makes my journey to Myanmar visiting the hill tribes become much more meaningful and well worthy than I have ever expected it to be. Nowadays, the practice of facial tattoo is no longer permitted by the Burmese authorities nor it is favored by the younger generation hence this part of the Chin culture, sadly, will soon be gone.

Photo by:Marco Vendittelli

Chin tribe is best known of the intricate ink details covering their entire face. This tradition started for generations ago when several tribes in the Chin province of Myanmar began to tattoo the face of each and every single young woman. The Chin parents, in an attempt to protect their daughters, started tattooing their young child’s face.


Over the years, what was originally intended to make the women undesirable began to have another opposite effect. The full facial tattoos became signs of beauty for every Chin women of the old generation. The tattooing became a thoroughgoing tradition, not only deeply entrenched in the local culture but also appeared to be something that most of Chin women are proud of and Each area of Chin state has a distinct tattoo pattern so it is usually possible to determine where a woman comes from by the look of the tattoo on her face. This kind of ancillary information makes my journey to Myanmar visiting the hill tribes become much more meaningful and well worthy than I have ever expected it to be. Nowadays, the practice of facial tattoo is no longer permitted by the Burmese authorities nor it is favored by the younger generation hence this part of the Chin culture, sadly, will soon be gone.



Photo by:Marco Vendittelli

Sumazau dance  of the Dusun people is the traditional dance of Kadazandusun. Usually, the sumazau dance is performed by a pair of men and women dancers wearing traditional costumes. Sumazau dance is usually accompanied by the beats and rhythms of seven to eight gongs. 

The opening movement for sumazau dance is the parallel swing of the arms back and forth at the sides of the body, while the feet springs and move the body from left to right. Once the opening dance moves are integrated with the gong beats and rhythms, the male dancer will chant "heeeeee!" indicating that it is time to change the dance moves. 

Upon hearing this chant, dancers will raise their hands to the sides of their body and in line with their chest, and move their wrists and arms up and down resembling the movement of a flying bird. There is plenty of choreography of sumazau dance, but the signature dance move of the sumazau will always be the flying bird arms movement, parallel arms swinging back and forth at the sides of the body, and the springing feet.

Sumazau dance  of the Dusun people is the traditional dance of Kadazandusun. Usually, the sumazau dance is performed by a pair of men and women dancers wearing traditional costumes. Sumazau dance is usually accompanied by the beats and rhythms of seven to eight gongs. 


The opening movement for sumazau dance is the parallel swing of the arms back and forth at the sides of the body, while the feet springs and move the body from left to right. Once the opening dance moves are integrated with the gong beats and rhythms, the male dancer will chant "heeeeee!" indicating that it is time to change the dance moves. 


Upon hearing this chant, dancers will raise their hands to the sides of their body and in line with their chest, and move their wrists and arms up and down resembling the movement of a flying bird. There is plenty of choreography of sumazau dance, but the signature dance move of the sumazau will always be the flying bird arms movement, parallel arms swinging back and forth at the sides of the body, and the springing feet.
Sumazau dance  of the Dusun people is the traditional dance of Kadazandusun. Usually, the sumazau dance is performed by a pair of men and women dancers wearing traditional costumes. Sumazau dance is usually accompanied by the beats and rhythms of seven to eight gongs. 


The opening movement for sumazau dance is the parallel swing of the arms back and forth at the sides of the body, while the feet springs and move the body from left to right. Once the opening dance moves are integrated with the gong beats and rhythms, the male dancer will chant "heeeeee!" indicating that it is time to change the dance moves. 


Upon hearing this chant, dancers will raise their hands to the sides of their body and in line with their chest, and move their wrists and arms up and down resembling the movement of a flying bird. There is plenty of choreography of sumazau dance, but the signature dance move of the sumazau will always be the flying bird arms movement, parallel arms swinging back and forth at the sides of the body, and the springing feet.